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Sunday, February 22, 2015

How people Photoshopped before Photoshop

100 years of manipulating images without computers
1856-57
"Cloud Study, Light-Dark," Gustave Le Gray. Two separate negatives (the sky and the sea) are joined at the horizon. This enabled Le Gray to balance two different exposure levels.
IMAGE: "FAKING IT: MANIPULATED PHOTOGRAPHY BEFORE PHOTOSHOP" AT THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART
c. 1855
"Two-Headed Man," unidentified American artist
IMAGE: "FAKING IT: MANIPULATED PHOTOGRAPHY BEFORE PHOTOSHOP" AT THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART
1857
"Aberdeen Portraits No. 1," by George Washington Wilson
IMAGE: "FAKING IT: MANIPULATED PHOTOGRAPHY BEFORE PHOTOSHOP" AT THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART
1858
"Fading Away," Henry Peach Robinson. Constructed by Robinson from five individual negatives. It was a favourite of Queen Victoria's husband, Albert, who bought a print and placed a standing order for all further composite images produced by Robinson.
IMAGE: THE ROYAL PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY COLLECTION / "FAKING IT: MANIPULATED PHOTOGRAPHY BEFORE PHOTOSHOP" AT THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART
c. 1901
"Spirit" photograph, John K. Hallowell, Chicago, Illinois. Supposedly taken during a seance, actually a double exposure or composite of superimposed cutouts, showing woman, half-length, with head-and-shoulders portraits of men and women around her head.
c. 1900
"Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec as artist and model," Maurice Guibert
IMAGE: "FAKING IT: MANIPULATED PHOTOGRAPHY BEFORE PHOTOSHOP" AT THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART
c. 1880
"Man juggling his own head," unidentified French artist
IMAGE: COLLECTION OF CHRISTOPHE GOEURY / "FAKING IT: MANIPULATED PHOTOGRAPHY BEFORE PHOTOSHOP" AT THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART
1907
"The Vision (Orpheus Scene)," F. Holland Day
IMAGE: "FAKING IT: MANIPULATED PHOTOGRAPHY BEFORE PHOTOSHOP" AT THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART
c. 1902
"General Grant at City Point," Levin Corbin. This photograph is a montage or composite of several images and does not actually show General Ulysses S. Grant at City Point. Three photos provided different parts of the portrait: the head, from Grant at his Cold Harbor, Virginia headquarters; the horse and man's body, from Maj. Gen. Alexander McDowell McCook; and the background, from Confederate prisoners captured in the battle of Fisher's Hill, Virginia.
c. 1913
"Colorado Springs, Colorado," William Henry Jackson / unidentified artist at Detroit Publishing Company
IMAGE: AMON CARTER MUSEUM OF AMERICAN ART / "FAKING IT: MANIPULATED PHOTOGRAPHY BEFORE PHOTOSHOP" AT THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART
1914
"A powerful collision," unidentified German artist. Postcard with an image of a German soldier crushing members of the Triple Entente, WWI.
IMAGE: "FAKING IT: MANIPULATED PHOTOGRAPHY BEFORE PHOTOSHOP" AT THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART
1930
"Dirigible docked on Empire State Building, New York," unidentified American artist
IMAGE: "FAKING IT: MANIPULATED PHOTOGRAPHY BEFORE PHOTOSHOP" AT THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART
1930
"Room with eye," Maurice Tabard
IMAGE: "FAKING IT: MANIPULATED PHOTOGRAPHY BEFORE PHOTOSHOP" AT THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART
c. 1930
Man on rooftop with 11 men in formation on his shoulders
IMAGE: GEORGE EASTMAN HOUSE, INTERNATIONAL MUSEUM OF PHOTOGRAPHY AND FILM / "FAKING IT: MANIPULATED PHOTOGRAPHY BEFORE PHOTOSHOP" AT THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART
1948
"Dream No. 1: Electrical Appliances for the Home," Grete Stern
MAGE: COURTESY OF GALER√ćA JORGE MARA - LA RUCHE / "FAKING IT: MANIPULATED PHOTOGRAPHY BEFORE PHOTOSHOP" AT THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART
1949
'Lenin and Stalin in Gorki in 1922," unidentified Russian artist. Although Stalin and Lenin met often, this image has been retouched to smooth Stalin's skin and increase the length of his left arm.
IMAGE: COLLECTION OF RYNA AND DAVID ALEXANDER / "FAKING IT: MANIPULATED PHOTOGRAPHY BEFORE PHOTOSHOP" AT THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART
1950
"Christmas Card," Angus McBean. Photographer Angus McBean’s Christmas cards frequently feature whimsically photo-manipulated images, like this self-portrait.
IMAGE: HARVARD THEATRE COLLECTION, HOUGHTON LIBRARY, HARVARD UNIVERSITY

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